Housing & It’s Basic Requirements

Housing & It's Basic Requirement

Housing & It's Basic Requirement

Housing

“Housing” in the modern concept includes not only the “physical structure” for providing protection and shelter but also includes the immediate surrounding and related community services and facilities. Residence is constructed for family life where a person gets physical and mental peace. World health organization (WHO) refers the term “Residential environment” where family can develop and flourish physically, mentally and socially and it includes all necessary services, facilities and equipment and devices needed for physical and mental health and social well-being.

Criteria for Healthful Housing

a) Physiological Needs

  • Rooms according to the number of people.
  • Free from objectionable odor and noise.
  • Adequate light and water supply.
  • Good drainage of water.
  • Proper place for collection of refuse and its disposal.
  • Provide adequate space for cooking, eating and washing.
  • Bathrooms and sanitary latrines.
  • Damp proof rooms
  • Protected from rain, sun, wild animals, rodents and snakes.
  • Privacy
  • Family and community cleanliness.
  • Helps in promoting social relationship and community development.
  • Aesthetic satisfaction.
  • Shelter
  • Family life
  • Access to community facilities.
  • Family participation in community life
  • Economic stability.
  • It should be good, elevated from surroundings, away from industrial areas and traffic noise.
  • Independent access to streets, away from breeding places of mosquitoes.
  • For proper lightening and ventilation, there should be an open space all around the house, this is called set back
  • In rural area———-1/3rd should be built.
  • In urban Areas——-2/3rd should be built.
  • Impermeable
  • Smooth and free from cracks and crevices.

b) Psychological Needs

  • Privacy
  • Family and community cleanliness.
  • Helps in promoting social relationship and community development.
  • Aesthetic satisfaction.

Social goals of Housing

  • Shelter
  • Family life
  • Access to community facilities.
  • Family participation in community life
  • Economic stability

Housing Standards

Site

  • It should be good, elevated from surroundings, away from industrial areas and traffic noise.
  • Independent access to streets, away from breeding places of mosquitoes.

Set Back

  • For proper lightening and ventilation, there should be an open space all around the house, this is called set back
  • In rural area———-1/3rd should be built.
  • In urban Areas——-2/3rd should be built.

Floor

  • Impermeable
  • Smooth and free from cracks and crevices.

Walls

Walls should be reasonably weather resistant, smooth and plastered. 9 inch bricks should use.

Roof

  • Roof should be at least 10 feet high, no cracks for rodents.
  • Low heat transmittance coefficient.

Rooms Requirements

  • For two persons——1 room
  • For three persons—–2 rooms
  • For 5 persons————3 rooms
  • For 7 persons——–4 rooms
  • For10 persons——–5 rooms.
  • Floor Area
  • For 1 person——-100 sq. ft.
  • More than one person—-120 sq. ft.

Doors and Windows

  • Windows cover almost 20 % of the floor area. Doors and windows should cover 40%. Every room should have two windows, 3 ft. high from ground with wire gauge cross ventilation is preferred.
  • Light should be adequate in the room.
  • Sunlight must reach and artificial indoor light should be preferred. There should be no glare and no sharp shadow.

Kitchen

House must have a separate kitchen with proper drainage system, good water supply, impervious floor, proper ventilation and outlet for smoke.

Other Requirements

  • Bathroom privacy
  • Refuse removal
  • Floor space: 120 sq. ft. for 2 persons.
  • A safe and adequate water supply at all Every times.

Places of Temporary Stay

  1. Hostels: They must be licensed and are regularly checked. Space per person should be at least 300 ft2. Adequate number of toilets must be available.
  2. Refugee Camps/Tents: There should be proper water supply and first aid facility available. The camps should be in a single row and there should be gap distance of atleast 10 feet in between them.

Effects of Poor Housing

  • Respiratory infections: Common cold, tuberculosis, bronchitis etc.
  • Psychological effects: depression, nervous disorders.
  • Skin infections: Scabies, ring worm
  • Rat infections
  • Arthropods: house flies, mosquitoes.
  • Morbidity and Mortality:
  • Skeleton effects i.e., poor development of the body.

Overcrowding

It refers to a situation in which more people are living within a single dwelling than there is a space for, so that movement is restricted, privacy secluded, hygiene impossible and rest and sleep difficult.

Effects of Overcrowding

  • Spread of infectious diseases.
  • Respiratory tract infections.
  • Irritability, frustration, lack of sleep.
  • Unhappy life.

Noise

  • Noise is defined as wrong sound in wrong place and at wrong times.
  • Noise is created when an object vibrates
  • Air is compressed and expanded forming waves
  •  These varying pressure waves travel outward from source in all directions
  • Noise waves have frequency and amplitude
  • Excessive noise can be damaging

Soil

It is the upper layer of earth’s crust. It is derived from the disintegration of rocks and decay of animals and plants of all kinds.

Classification

  1. Sand
  2. Gravel
  3. Clay
  4. Humus
  5. Made soil

Soil and Health

  • Soil contains spores and bacteria e.g., Spores of anthrax and tetanus and vibrio cholera, salmonella and dysentery organisms.
  • Soil also contains worms e.g., E. histolytica.
  • Soil deficient in Iodine results in Iodine deficient water and resulting goiter in people of that area, It is called endemic goiter
  • Due to organic overload, soil is polluted and results in soil dampness, which is associated with ill health.
  • Nitrogen cycle
  • Carbon cycle

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